Establish a shared understanding of people and what issues/problems they have.


1. Observe a day in the life: I accompany a potential user through daily life, taking notes on observations.

2. Empathy interviews: 1-on-1 open ended, informal meetings where I get to know a person and how they relate to the problem I am trying to understand.

3. Surveys: Surveys are best used for simple demographic questions or to find out which questions need to be asked in a 1-on-1 interview. I never rely solely on surveys.

4. Competitive Analysis

5. Expert interviews: Meeting with people who live and breath the subject area, whether that's a doctor or a customer service rep.


  • Survey results
  • Interview notes
  • SWOT analysis


Align with the core problem to be solved and find out the requirements for the solution.


1. Card sorting: I put insights and quotes from my interview notes onto cards and sort into categories that reveal patterns across research. This will often make the biggest problems and motivations clear.

2. Storytelling / Personas: I write or illustrate a story that represents a group of users. I design personas to compare groups of users.

4. Customer journey mapping: I make a map to discover which actions, motivations, emotions, and barriers take users through a certain journey.

5. 'How Might We' statements: Based on insights from card sorting and storytelling, I answer 'how might we...?' for various problems and opportunities.

6. Requirement building and user stories: I build solution requirements and users stories. These aren't product design requirements (that comes later).


  • Insight list
  • Problem statement
  • Stories (informal not user stories) / Personas
  • Journey map
  • Requirements and user stories


Generate solution ideas in quick succession.


1. Co-creation with customers: I use various brainstorming techniques with users to stimulate their solution ideas and gain trust and ownership.

2. Bodystorming: I act out a potential solution (first step toward an analog prototype).

3. Mindmapping: I start with the problem statement in the middle of a piece of paper and build a mind map of words, phrases, and concepts that relate.

4. Sketching: With a group of internal stakeholders, using 'How Might We', problems statements, insight list, and mindmapping, we sketch ideas to each statement. We sketch 8 solutions in 10 minutes and vote on which we want to move forward with.


  • Solutions to pursue (if there are multiple, break up teams to prototype each)


Turn those ideas into testable prototypes.


1. Identify assumptions and variables to test: what are the biggest assumptions built into our idea and how can I make a prototype that purposefully tests them?

2. Paper prototype: Exactly what it sounds like.

3. InVision prototype: I create low or high fidelity wireframes, transferred to InVision.

4. Analog prototype: Paper, sticks, duct tape - how can I test without making a digital version? Can I provide a service that's similar to a feature idea?

5. Framer.js prototype


  • Prototype


Analyze our prototype to find out if our assumptions were correct and what we can improve.


1. In-person usability testing: I test the assumptions I identified in phase 4 through in-person app use. I don't over explain or user leading questions, and I make sure to involve other teammates.

2. Unmoderated remote usability testing: same but unmoderated.

3. A/B testing: I test and compare two solution diversions.

4. Usability testing synthesis: I review feedback and answer the following questions: was this feedback similar across multiple tests? Does it significantly effect the function or usability of this feature? Is the feedback in conflict with our core vision? Which assumptions were right, wrong, or somewhere in between?


  • Usability testing notes
  • Requirement and design changes for future versions

How do i fit into the product process?